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Post COVID-19 condition in Sweden: statistics, research projects, and available data

Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged healthcare and dramatically changed daily life for people worldwide. The severity of symptoms experienced by patients during the acute infection phase of COVID-19 disease varies between individuals from mild to severe. After this phase, there are usually no indications that the disease will have any long-term effects on their health, regardless of the severity of symptoms experienced during the acute infection phase. However, some patients continue to exhibit symptoms for prolonged periods after the acute phase. The symptoms experienced by such patients are broad, but can include, for example, deep fatigue, joint pain, ‘brain fog’ (difficulty concentrating on certain tasks for longer periods of time), and heart palpitations (Brodin, 2021, Marx, 2021). These symptoms can have a significant impact on the patients’ quality of life.

Most studies that have explored what causes some patients to experience prolonged symptoms have been descriptive. However, several recent studies have explored potential causes in detail. For example, Važgėlienė et al. (2022) investigated potential links between prolonged symptoms after COVID-19 infection and other types of chronic disease or daily medication. They found an association between the taking of daily medication and the development of prolonged symptoms after COVID-19 infection. Other studies have found that multiple other factors, including being female, advanced age, and poor general health, are associated with an increased risk of experiencing prolonged symptoms after a COVID-19 infection (Sudre et al., 2021).

This condition (i.e. the presistance of symptoms following the acute phase of COVID-19 infection) has been referred to in multiple ways, including Post COVID-19 condition, Post-COVID, and Long COVID. On this page, we use the term Post COVID-19 condition for consistency. See the Background Information section below for more detail about the nomenclature used and relevant research.

On this page, you can find visualisations of data related to Post COVID-19 condition in Sweden from The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), an overview of ongoing Post COVID-19 condition research projects in Sweden, and scientific publications regarding Post COVID-19 condition by researchers affiliated with Swedish universities or research institutes.

For more information on Post COVID-19 condition in Sweden, please see this section of The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen)’s website and their report on Post-COVID condition (published April 2021). More general information is also available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Availability of data and code


All data last updated:

The data underlying the visualisations on this page are from The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare and comprise of data from both the Patient Register and the ‘Cause of Death’ Register. The data are updated monthly, on the second Wednesday of the month, and are available for download here. Additional data about COVID-19 can be requested from the corresponding registers by any researchers fulfilling the requirements for access, the guidelines for access via the RUT (Register Utiliser Tool) are available here.


All code used to produce the visualisations on this page is available on GitHub. The particular scripts used in each case are linked below the individual visualisations.

Statistics on Post COVID-19 condition in Sweden

Since Post COVID-19 condition is not clearly defined, over time, it has been assigned multiple diagnosis codes for use by medical professionals/researchers. After the first cases of prolonged disease following COVID-19 infection were detected in spring 2020, The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare initiated the diagnosis Z86.1A - COVID-19 in own medical history (Covid-19 i den egna sjukhistorien). This diagnosis code has been used since 1st June 2020. From 1st January 2021, this diagnosis code was replaced by U08.9 (ICD-10-SE) - COVID-19 in own medical history, unspecified (Covid-19 i den egna sjukhistorien) in accordance with new WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines. This diagnosis should be used when an individual is receiving treatment for an illness/physical damage for which the patient’s history of COVID-19 infection is considered relevant (i.e. a contributory factor to the present illness/damage). Importantly, this diagnosis should only be given if the individual is no longer considered to have COVID-19, and if the current health condition is not considered to result from infection with COVID-19. U08.9 is an additional diagnosis, as such, it should only be assigned alongside a main diagnosis; it cannot be the main diagnosis.

From 16th October 2020, the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare initiated a new diagnosis, U09.9 (ICD-10-SE) - Postinfectious state associated with COVID-19, unspecified (Postinfektiöst tillstånd efter covid-19, ospecificerat), in accordance with new WHO guidelines. This new diagnosis supplemented and partially replaced the Z86.1A diagnosis. As with U08.9, the U09.9 diagnosis should only be given after the person is no longer considered to have COVID-19. This diagnosis code should be used for conditions that persist or begin after the acute infection stage has passed. U09.9 is also an additional diagnosis, and should only be assigned alongside a separate main diagnosis.

For more information and current guidelines regarding diagnoses used for conditions related to a history of COVID-19, see this webpage from The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare.

Age and sex distribution of diagnosed cases

These plots display the number of times that patients were assigned the diagnoses of interest in Sweden since the introduction of the relevant codes, divided by patient age and sex.

Diagnosis U09.9

Code used to produce plot: Script to produce plot.

Diagnosis Z86.1A/U08.9

Code used to produce plot: Script to produce plot.

Geographic distribution of diagnosed cases relative to population size

The maps below show the number of people that received the diagnoses of interest in each county as a percentage of the total population of that county. The total population of the county and the number of people who received the diagnosis can be seen by hovering the mouse above a particular county.

Diagnosis U09.9

Code used to produce plot: Data preparation script, Script to produce map.

Diagnosis Z86.1A/U08.9

Code used to produce plot: Data preparation script, Script to produce map.

Most common accompanying diagnoses

Diagnosis U09.9

The below table displays the most common types of diagnosis (diagnosis groups) that have been reported together with the U09.9 (ICD-10-SE) - Postinfectious state associated with COVID-19, unspecified diagnosis. In particular, the values in the table represent the amount of individuals that received the U09.9 diagnosis alongside one of the diagnoses below. The data was recorded between 16th October 2020 and the most recent data update (see above).

Note that an individual may have more than one of the accompanying diagnoses. However, if an individual has the same issue on multiple doctor visits/healthcare contacts, the diagnosis will only be counted once

Code used to produce table: Script to produce table (English), Script to produce table (Swedish).

Contacts with healthcare

The below plot shows the number of times that patients given the diagnoses of interest have sought healthcare. Note that while the weekly data below starts from week 21 of 2020, some diagnosis codes (U08.9 and U09.9) were not used until after this date (see information above). It is important to note that the data is not complete, given that data from some healthcare providers (e.g. general practitioners) are not reported to the Patient Registry due to privacy concerns. Where data is reported to registers, data from the most recent weeks should be considered preliminary, as the registers are not instantaneously updated. A delay in reporting data to registers may be particularly evident during traditional holiday periods, including over the summer months.

Rotating your phone may improve graph layout

Code used to produce plot: Script to produce plot.

Contacts with healthcare, divided by patient sex

The below plots show the number of times that patients given one of the diagnoses of interest have sought healthcare. The weekly number of healthcare visits is shown, divided by patient sex. As in the above section, it is important to note that the data is not complete, given that data from some healthcare providers (e.g. general practitioners) are not reported to the Patient Registry due to privacy concerns. Where data is reported to registers, data from the most recent weeks should be considered preliminary, as the registers are not instantaneously updated. A delay in reporting data to registers may be particularly evident during traditional holiday periods, including over the summer months.

Diagnosis U09.9

Rotating your phone may improve graph layout

Code used to produce plot: Script to produce plot.

Diagnosis Z86.1A/U08.9

Rotating your phone may improve graph layout

Code used to produce plot: Script to produce plot.

Ongoing research projects

Below is a manually curated overview of research projects on Post COVID-19 condition that are funded by major funding agencies in Sweden. As it is manually curated, the list may not be exhaustive and new projects will be added as soon as possible. If you think that your project should be listed here but isn’t, please get in touch with us. For a list of all research projects funded by major funding agencies in Sweden see this section of the portal.

Project title Principal investigator PI affiliation Funder
Internet-based multimodal rehabilitation for sufferers with remaining post-covid-19 symptoms Indre Ljungar Danderyds Sjukhus Vinnova
Postcovid trötthet: Kännetecken, riskfaktorer, konsekvenser och principer för hantering Farzaneh Badinlou Karolinska Institutet Centre for Psychotherapy Research and Education, Karolinska Institute.
Role of unconventional T cells in acute COVID19 disease, convalescence, and long-COVID syndrome Johan K. Sandberg Karolinska Institute SciLifeLab / Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Immune dysregulation in patients with long-COVID Petter Brodin Karolinska Institute SciLifeLab / Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Rehabiliteringsprofil hos post covid-19 Yvonne Freund-Levi Örebro University AFA-försäkring
Sociodemografiska faktorer och risken att utveckla långtidssjukdom och komplikationer efter mild respektive svår Covid-19 - Ett fokus på nedsatt arbetsförmåga och utvecklandet av sjukdom i efterförloppet av Covid-19 Maria Rosvall University of Gothenburg Swedish Social Insurance Agency
Immunologiska och virologiska korrelat bakom postcovid: En bäddsida-till-bänk approach Soo Aleman Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Fatiguekohorten - En longitudinell studie på post-COVID-19, kroniskt trötthetssyndrom (ME/CFS) och utmattningssyndrom Anna Andreasson Stockholm University Swedish Research Council
Genetiska och immunologiska mekanismer bakom svårt post-akut COVID-19 syndrom Petter Brodin Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Kartläggning och risk faktoranalys av post-covid i en Nordisk databas och biobanksdata Anne-Marie Fors Connolly Umeå University Swedish Research Council
Långtidseffekter på hjärnan efter covid-19 Magnus Gisslén Gothenburg University Swedish Research Council
Postcovid hos de värst drabbade i pandemin: äldres riskfaktorer, läkemedel och utfall i stora nationella data Kristina Johnell Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Långsiktiga ögonbesvär hos patienter med post-COVID-19 syndrom: ursprung och sjukdomsbiomarkörer Neil Lagali Linköping pingUniversity Swedish Research Council
Långvariga nedsättningar i kognitiv och lukt-funktion efter mild Covid-19 – modifierande faktorer, hjärnkorrelat och prognostisk betydelse för välbefinnande och vardaglig funktionsförmåga Erika Laukka Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Prevalens och behandling av post-covid relaterade luktbesvär Johan Lundström Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Postcovid i Sverige, Västra Götalandsregionen och världen Annika Rosengren Gothenburg University Swedish Research Council
COMPARE - Nationell och regional registerbaserad uppföljning av postcovid-sjuklighet och vårdutnyttjande Per Sparén Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Identifiering av nya behandlingsbara mekanismer och implementering av behandling hos post covid patienter med kardiovaskulära komplikationer Marcus Ståhlberg Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council
Behandlingsbara patofisiologiska förändringar i kroppar av Covid-19 och post-Covid patienter identifierade genom obduktioner på BSL3 nivå Laszlo Szekely Karolinska Institutet Swedish Research Council


Below is a list of pre-prints and published scientific journal articles on Post COVID-19 condition involving at least one author affiliated with a Swedish university or research institute. Note that this list is based on a manually curated database and, as such, may not be exhaustive. If you think that a publication should be listed here but isn’t, or feel that information about a publication needs correction, please get in touch with us. For a list of all publications on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 involving at least one author affiliated with a Swedish univerisity or research institute see this section of the portal.

Publication Published
Risk of long COVID and associated symptoms after acute SARS-COV-2 infection in ethnic minorities: A nationwide register-linked cohort study in Denmark.
Mkoma GF, Agyemang C, Benfield T, Rostila M, Cederström A, Petersen JH, Norredam M
PLoS Med 21 (2) e1004280. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1004280
Gut microbiota composition is altered in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and post-acute COVID-19 syndrome.
Hamrefors V, Kahn F, Holmqvist M, Carlson K, Varjus R, Gudjonsson A, Fedorowski A, Ohlsson B
Sci Rep 14 (1) 3389. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-024-53784-9
Improved Functioning and Activity According to the International Classification of Functioning and Disability after Multidisciplinary Telerehabilitation for Post-COVID-19 Condition-A Randomized Control Study.
Bileviciute-Ljungar I, Norrefalk J, Borg K
J Clin Med 13 (4) 970. DOI: 10.3390/jcm13040970
Neurological involvement among non-hospitalized adolescents and young adults 6 months after acute COVID-19.
Havdal LB, Selvakumar J, Lund Berven L, Stiansen-Sonerud T, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Holmøy T, Wyller VBB
Front Neurol 15 1345787. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2024.1345787
Variations in respiratory and functional symptoms at four months after hospitalisation due to COVID-19: a cross-sectional study.
Fagevik Olsén M, Lannefors L, Johansson E, Persson HC
BMC Pulm Med 24 (1) 63. DOI: 10.1186/s12890-024-02866-5
International Care programs for Pediatric Post-COVID Condition (Long COVID) and the way forward.
Brackel CLH, Noij LCE, Vijverberg SJH, Legghe CL, Maitland-van der Zee AH, van Goudoever JB, Buonsenso D, Munblit D, Sigfrid L, McFarland S, Anmyr L, Ashkenazi-Hoffnung L, Bellinat APN, Dias NLS, Edwards A, Fashina T, Juraški RG, Gonçalves ALN, Hansted E, Herczeg V, Hertting O, Jankauskaite LN, Kaswandani N, Kevalas R, Krivácsy P, Lorenz M, Malone LA, McVoy M, Miller DW, Morrow AK, Nugawela MD, Oliveira CR, Oliveira PRS, Osmanov IM, Overmars IM, Paintsil E, Pinto Pereira SM, Prawira Y, Putri ND, Ramos RCF, Rasche M, Ryd-Rinder M, De Rose C, Samitova E, Jovanović TS, Say D, Scott JT, Shachar-Lavie I, Shafran R, Shmueli E, Snipaitiene A, Stephenson T, Ténai N, Tosif S, Turkalj M, Valentini P, Vasconcelos LRS, Villard L, Vilser D, Hashimoto S, Terheggen-Lagro SWJ
Pediatr Res. DOI: 10.1038/s41390-023-03015-0
The Impact of Previous Comorbidities on New Comorbidities and Medications after a Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Lithuanian Cohort.
Važgėlienė D, Kubilius R, Bileviciute-Ljungar I
J Clin Med 13 (2). DOI: 10.3390/jcm13020623
Persistent complement dysregulation with signs of thromboinflammation in active Long Covid.
Cervia-Hasler C, Brüningk SC, Hoch T, Fan B, Muzio G, Thompson RC, Ceglarek L, Meledin R, Westermann P, Emmenegger M, Taeschler P, Zurbuchen Y, Pons M, Menges D, Ballouz T, Cervia-Hasler S, Adamo S, Merad M, Charney AW, Puhan M, Brodin P, Nilsson J, Aguzzi A, Raeber ME, Messner CB, Beckmann ND, Borgwardt K, Boyman O
Science 383 (6680) eadg7942. DOI: 10.1126/science.adg7942
Fatigue and Mental Illness Symptoms in Long COVID: Protocol for a Prospective Cohort Multicenter Observational Study.
Pires L, Reis C, Mesquita Facão AR, Moniri A, Marreiros A, Drummond M, Berger-Estilita J
JMIR Res Protoc 13 e51820. DOI: 10.2196/51820
Immune system perturbations in patients with long COVID.
Rodriguez L, Brodin P
Trends Mol Med. DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2023.12.008
Conceptual foundations of acetylcarnitine supplementation in neuropsychiatric long COVID syndrome: a narrative review.
Helbing DL, Dommaschk E, Danyeli LV, Liepinsh E, Refisch A, Sen ZD, Zvejniece L, Rocktäschel T, Stabenow LK, Schiöth HB, Walter M, Dambrova M, Besteher B
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. DOI: 10.1007/s00406-023-01734-3
Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in post-COVID-19 syndrome: a major health-care burden.
Fedorowski A, Fanciulli A, Raj SR, Sheldon R, Shibao CA, Sutton R
Nat Rev Cardiol. DOI: 10.1038/s41569-023-00962-3
Impaired function in the lung periphery following COVID-19 is associated with lingering breathing difficulties.
Kjellberg S, Holm A, Berguerand N, Sandén H, Schiöler L, Olsén MF, Olin A
Physiol Rep 12 (2) e15918. DOI: 10.14814/phy2.15918
The impact of ambient temperature and air pollution on SARS-CoV2 infection and Post COVID-19 condition in Belgium (2021-2022).
Thi Khanh HN, De Troeyer K, Smith P, Demoury C, Casas L
Environ Res 246 118066. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.118066
Post-acute COVID-19 neuropsychiatric symptoms are not associated with ongoing nervous system injury.
Taquet M, Skorniewska Z, Zetterberg H, Geddes JR, Mummery CJ, Chalmers JD, Ho L, Horsley A, Marks M, Poinasamy K, Raman B, Leavy OC, Richardson M, Elneima O, McAuley HJC, Shikotra A, Singapuri A, Sereno M, Saunders RM, Harris VC, Houchen-Wolloff L, Mansoori P, Greening NJ, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Lone NI, Quint J, Greenhalf W, Wain LV, Brightling CE, Evans RE, Harrison PJ, Koychev I, PHOSP-COVID Study Collaborative Group
Brain Commun 6 (1) fcad357. DOI: 10.1093/braincomms/fcad357
Enhanced External Counterpulsation for Management of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Associated Microvascular Angina and Fatigue: An Interventional Pilot Study.
Wu E, Mahdi A, Nickander J, Bruchfeld J, Mellbin L, Haugaa K, Ståhlberg M, Desta L
Cardiol Res Pract 2023 6687803. DOI: 10.1155/2023/6687803
General and orofacial symptoms associated with acute and long COVID in 80- and 90-year-old Swedish COVID-19 survivors.
Johansson A, Omar R, Lehmann S, Sannevik J, Mastrovito B, Johansson A
J Dent 141 104824. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2023.104824
Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings six months after critical COVID-19: A prospective cohort study.
Ollila H, Pihlajamaa J, Martola J, Kuusela L, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Salmela V, Hokkanen L, Tiainen M, Hästbacka J
J Crit Care 80 154502. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2023.154502
Figuring Out Life After Covid-19: a Qualitative Study From Sweden.
Larsson AC, Törnbom K, Sunnerhagen KS, Palstam A, Persson HC
J Rehabil Med 55 jrm11931. DOI: 10.2340/jrm.v55.11931
Neuroimmune activation and increased brain aging in chronic pain patients after the COVID-19 pandemic onset.
Brusaferri L, Alshelh Z, Schnieders JH, Sandström A, Mohammadian M, Morrissey EJ, Kim M, Chane CA, Grmek GC, Murphy JP, Bialobrzewski J, DiPietro A, Klinke J, Zhang Y, Torrado-Carvajal A, Mercaldo N, Akeju O, Wu O, Rosen BR, Napadow V, Hadjikhani N, Loggia ML
Brain Behav Immun 116 259-266. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2023.12.016
The association of insomnia with long COVID: An international collaborative study (ICOSS-II).
Chen S, Morin CM, Ivers H, Wing YK, Partinen M, Merikanto I, Holzinger B, Espie CA, De Gennaro L, Dauvilliers Y, Chung F, Yordanova J, Vidović D, Reis C, Plazzi G, Penzel T, Nadorff MR, Matsui K, Mota-Rolim S, Leger D, Landtblom A, Korman M, Inoue Y, Hrubos-Strøm H, Chan NY, Bjelajac AK, Benedict C, Bjorvatn B
Sleep Med 112 216-222. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2023.09.034
Preliminary Findings on Cognitive Dysfunction in University-Educated Patients After Mild COVID-19 Disease.
Stenberg J, Hedström S, Markovic G, Borg K, Löfgren M, Möller MC
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl 5 (4) 100294. DOI: 10.1016/j.arrct.2023.100294
COVID-19 illness severity and 2-year prevalence of physical symptoms: an observational study in Iceland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark.
Shen Q, Joyce EE, Ebrahimi OV, Didriksen M, Lovik A, Sævarsdóttir KS, Magnúsdóttir I, Mikkelsen DH, Unnarsdóttir AB, Hauksdóttir A, Hoffart A, Kähler AK, Thórdardóttir EB, Eythórsson E, Frans EM, Tómasson G, Ask H, Hardardóttir H, Jakobsdóttir J, Lehto K, Lu L, Andreassen OA, Sullivan PF, Pálsson R, Erikstrup C, Ostrowski SR, Werge T, Aspelund T, Pedersen OBV, Johnson SU, Fang F, Valdimarsdóttir UA
Lancet Reg Health Eur 35 100756. DOI: 10.1016/j.lanepe.2023.100756
Associations between changes in habitual sleep duration and lower self-rated health among COVID-19 survivors: findings from a survey across 16 countries/regions.
Matsui K, Chung F, Bjelajac AK, Merikanto I, Korman M, Mota-Rolim S, Cunha AS, Bjorvatn B, Xue P, Benedict C, Morin CM, Espie CA, Landtblom A, Penzel T, De Gennaro L, Holzinger B, Hrubos-Strøm H, Leger D, Bolstad CJ, Nadorff MR, Plazzi G, Reis C, Chan NY, Wing YK, Yordanova J, Dauvilliers Y, Partinen M, Inoue Y
BMC Public Health 23 (1) 2352. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-023-17258-3
Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness against post-covid-19 condition among 589 722 individuals in Sweden: population based cohort study.
Lundberg-Morris L, Leach S, Xu Y, Martikainen J, Santosa A, Gisslén M, Li H, Nyberg F, Bygdell M
BMJ 383 e076990. DOI: 10.1136/bmj-2023-076990
Prolonged gastrointestinal manifestations after recovery from COVID-19.
Elmunzer BJ, Palsson OS, Forbes N, Zakaria A, Davis C, Canakis A, Qayed E, Bick B, Pawa S, Tierney WM, McLeod CG, Taylor J, Patel H, Mendelsohn RB, Bala G, Sloan I, Merchant AA, Smith ZL, Sendzischew Shane MA, Aroniadis OC, Ordiah CO, Ruddy JM, Simren M, Tack J, Drossman D, Rome Foundation Research Institute , North American Alliance for the Study of Digestive Manifestations of COVID-19
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2023.11.009
Dysregulations in hemostasis, metabolism, immune response, and angiogenesis in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome with and without postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a multi-omic profiling study.
Mahdi A, Zhao A, Fredengren E, Fedorowski A, Braunschweig F, Nygren-Bonnier M, Runold M, Bruchfeld J, Nickander J, Deng Q, Checa A, Desta L, Pernow J, Ståhlberg M
Sci Rep 13 (1) 20230. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-47539-1
Monoclonal antibodies lock down SARS-CoV-2 spike.
Huang H, Angeletti D
Trends Immunol 44 (11) 874-876. DOI: 10.1016/
COVID-19 Recovery: Consistent Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Abnormalities in Patients With Neurocognitive Post-COVID Complications.
Kanberg N, Grahn A, Stentoft E, Bremell D, Yilmaz A, Studahl M, Nilsson S, Schöll M, Gostner JM, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Padmanabhan N, Cohen R, Misaghian S, Romero D, Campbell C, Mathew A, Wang M, Sigal G, Stengelin M, Edén A, Gisslén M
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiad395
Habitual short sleepers with pre-existing medical conditions are at higher risk of Long COVID.
Berezin L, Waseem R, Merikanto I, Benedict C, Holzinger B, De Gennaro L, Wing YK, Bjorvatn B, Korman M, Morin CM, Espie C, Landtblom A, Penzel T, Matsui K, Hrubos-Strøm H, Mota-Rolim S, Nadorff MR, Plazzi G, Reis C, Chan RNY, Cunha AS, Yordanova J, Bjelajac AK, Inoue Y, Dauvilliers Y, Partinen M, Chung F
J Clin Sleep Med. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.10818
Clinical standards for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of post-COVID-19 lung disease.
Visca D, Centis R, Pontali E, Zampogna E, Russell A, Migliori GB, Andrejak C, Aro M, Bayram H, Berkani K, Bruchfeld J, Chakaya JM, Chorostowska-Wynimko J, Crestani B, Dalcolmo MP, D'Ambrosio L, Dinh-Xuan A, Duong-Quy S, Fernandes C, García-García J, de Melo Kawassaki A, Carrozzi L, Martinez-Garcia MA, Martins PC, Mirsaeidi M, Mohammad Y, Naidoo RN, Neuparth N, Sese L, Silva DR, Solovic I, Sooronbaev TM, Spanevello A, Sverzellati N, Tanno L, Tiberi S, Vasankari T, Vasarmidi E, Vitacca M, Annesi-Maesano I
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 27 (10) 729-741. DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.23.0248
SARS-CoV-2 reservoir in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC).
Proal AD, VanElzakker MB, Aleman S, Bach K, Boribong BP, Buggert M, Cherry S, Chertow DS, Davies HE, Dupont CL, Deeks SG, Eimer W, Ely EW, Fasano A, Freire M, Geng LN, Griffin DE, Henrich TJ, Iwasaki A, Izquierdo-Garcia D, Locci M, Mehandru S, Painter MM, Peluso MJ, Pretorius E, Price DA, Putrino D, Scheuermann RH, Tan GS, Tanzi RE, VanBrocklin HF, Yonker LM, Wherry EJ
Nat Immunol 24 (10) 1616-1627. DOI: 10.1038/s41590-023-01601-2
Increased intra-pulmonary shunt and alveolar dead space post COVID-19.
Farrow CE, Robles R, Prisk GK, Harbut P, Malhotra A, Amis TC, Wagner PD, Kairaitis K
J Appl Physiol (1985). DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00267.2023
Cognitive dysfunction in post-COVID-19 condition: Mechanisms, management, and rehabilitation.
Möller M, Borg K, Janson C, Lerm M, Normark J, Niward K
J Intern Med. DOI: 10.1111/joim.13720
New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in COVID-19: A Scoping Review.
Pantea Stoian A, Bica I, Salmen T, Al Mahmeed W, Al-Rasadi K, Al-Alawi K, Banach M, Banerjee Y, Ceriello A, Cesur M, Cosentino F, Firenze A, Galia M, Goh S, Janez A, Kalra S, Kapoor N, Kempler P, Lessan N, Lotufo P, Mikhaildiis DP, Nibali L, Papanas N, Powell-Wiley T, Rizvi AA, Sahebkar A, Santos RD, Toth PP, Viswanathan V, Rizzo M, Cardiometabolic Panel of International Experts on Syndemic COVID-19 (CAPISCO)
Diabetes Ther. DOI: 10.1007/s13300-023-01465-7
Predictors of the post-COVID condition following mild SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Reme B, Gjesvik J, Magnusson K
Nat Commun 14 (1) 5839. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-41541-x
Post COVID-19 condition after SARS-CoV-2 infections during the omicron surge compared with the delta, alpha, and wild-type periods in Stockholm, Sweden.
Hedberg P, Nauclér P
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiad382
Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in children.
Brodin P
Semin Immunol 69 101794. DOI: 10.1016/j.smim.2023.101794
Central nervous system biomarkers GFAp and NfL associate with post-acute cognitive impairment and fatigue following critical COVID-19.
Bark L, Larsson I, Wallin E, Simrén J, Zetterberg H, Lipcsey M, Frithiof R, Rostami E, Hultström M
Sci Rep 13 (1) 13144. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-39698-y
Post COVID-19 symptoms are common, also among young adults in the general population.
Mogensen I, Ekström S, Hallberg J, Georgelis A, Melén E, Bergström A, Kull I
Sci Rep 13 (1) 11300. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-38315-2
Incidence and Characteristics in Children with Post-COVID-19 Condition in Sweden.
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Background Information

Post COVID-19 condition

Individuals with Post COVID-19 condition exhibit symptoms lasting at least two months after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection (Brodin, 2021). The particular symptoms exhibited vary between patients, as does the duration and severity of symptoms. In general though, symptoms are usually debilitating and may include persistent fatigue, myalgia (muscle aches and pains), and autonomic dysregulation, among others. Some individuals with Post COVID-19 condition exhibit the same symptoms as they did during the acute infection stage of COVID-19, while others with Post COVID-19 condition exhibit new symptoms following the acute infection phase (Brodin 2021, Dennis et al., 2021, Davido et al., 2020.

No consensus on definition

In September 2020, WHO established the ICD10 code for Post COVID-19 condition U09.9 - Post COVID-19 condition, unspecified. A WHO report from April 2021 stated that there is a real need to characterise and formally define Post COVID-19 condition in order to increase understanding about the condition and facilitate diagnosis. However, to date, Post COVID-19 condition still lacks a universal definition with regard to the symptoms and disease duration necessary for diagnosis. Consequently, governmental agencies and research institutes in different countries use their own definitions and terms. Related diagnoses established by WHO are U08.9 - Personal history of COVID-19, unspecified and U10.9 - Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19, unspecified. The U08.9 diagnosis is used to describe an earlier episode of COVID-19 (either confirmed or probable) that influenced the individual’s health status, though they no longer have COVID-19. The code U10.9 is used to describe a temporal association with COVID-19: cytokine storm, Kawasaki-like syndrome, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS).

In England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has defined Post-COVID-19 syndrome as “…signs and symptoms that develop during or after an infection consistent with COVID‑19, continue for more than 12 weeks, and are not explained by an alternative diagnosis. It usually presents with clusters of symptoms, often overlapping, which can fluctuate and change over time and can affect any system in the body…”. NICE states that Post‑COVID‑19 syndrome can be considered as a diagnosis during the first three months after the acute infection phase of COVID-19 while healthcare assessments are completed to determine whether the symptoms could be explained by an alternative disease. Further, NICE defines the term Long COVID as “…signs and symptoms that continue or develop after acute COVID‑19. It includes both ongoing symptomatic COVID‑19 (from 4 to 12 weeks) and post‑COVID‑19 syndrome (12 weeks or more)…”. In December 2020, NICE, in partnership with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of General Practitioners, published a guideline for health and care practitioners (NG188) on identifying, assessing, and managing the long-term effects of COVID-19.

In the USA, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines Post-COVID conditions as “…a wide range of new, returning, or ongoing health problems people can experience more than four weeks after first being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19…”. The CDC distinguishes between Long COVID, Multiorgan Effects of COVID-19, and Effects of COVID-19 Treatment or Hospitalisation. For example, they define Long COVID as “a range of symptoms that can last weeks or months after first being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 or can appear weeks after infection.”. For information on Post-COVID conditions from the CDC, see this page. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the USA uses the term Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) to refer to the effects of COVID-19 after the initial stages of infection. In February 2021, The NIH launched a research initiative to identify the causes of PASC and, ultimately, to find methods for prevention and treatments for individuals that don’t recover fully over a period of a few weeks following the acute infection phase of COVID-19.

The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) describes patients with Postcovid as individuals exhibiting prolonged symptoms, or experiencing new relevant symptoms after the acute phase of COVID-19 infection. While the severity of symptoms will diminish over time for most individuals (such individuals do not need assistance from healthcare during the recovery), some individuals experience symptoms that are debilitating and need treatment, rehabilitation, and other follow-up medical care. In April 2021, Socialstyrelsen published a report dedicated to Postcovid that defines the condition and provides recommendations.

Research efforts

A large number of research articles, case reports, and reviews focused on Post COVID-19 condition have been published over the last year (e.g. Dani et al. (2020), Nabavi (2020), Sudre et al. (2021), Tarybagil et al. (2020), Yelin et al. (2020)). The primary aims of these studies are to identify factors that could be used to predict when Post COVID-19 condition is more likely to develop, the underlying causes of the condition, and potential treatments. A recently published study by Sudre and colleagues proposed a prediction model to identify individuals at risk of Post COVID-19 condition using data from the COVID Symptom Study, where participants self-reported their symptoms in an app on their mobile devices. The results indicated that individuals experiencing more than five symptoms during the first week of illness were more likely to develop Post COVID-19 condition (odds ratio = 3.53 (2.76–4.50)). In addition, the study showed that the development of Post COVID-19 condition was more likely in females, and that the risk also rose with increasing age and body mass index. The researchers behind the study propose that their model could be used to identify individuals at risk of developing Post COVID-19 condition. This could inform trials of preventative or treatment methods, and aid in the planning of education and rehabilitation services.